Category Archives: WCF


How does HTTPS works?

How does HTTPS works?

  1. Client request for secure Https  page.
  2. Web server respond by sending certificate with public key.
  3. Client checks the validity of the certificate and create a symmetric session key using the public key and sends it back to Web serer.
  4. Web server decrypt the symmetric session key using it’s private key and sends page encrypted using the symmetric session key.
  5. Secure session has now been established between Client browser & Web server.


HTTPS pages typically use one of two secure protocols to encrypt communications – SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) or TLS (Transport Layer Security). Both the TLS and SSL protocols use what is known as an ‘asymmetric’ Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) system. An asymmetric system uses two ‘keys’ to encrypt communications, a ‘public’ key and a ‘private’ key. Anything encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted by the private key and vice-versa.

The ‘private’ key should be kept strictly protected and should only be accessible the owner of the private key. In the case of a website, the private key remains securely ensconced on the web server. Conversely, the public key is intended to be distributed to anybody and everybody that needs to be able to decrypt information that was encrypted with the private key.



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When to use Channel factory in WCF

If you are using assembly-sharing (which is, let’s face it, hugely convenient if you own both ends of the pipe), then both ends already have a complete version if the interface etc. It seems redundant to run the svcutil tool (at command-prompt or via the IDE) just to get back a wrapper for what we already have. It also works very well when you want to code only to an interface, not to the wrapper class – and use some centralised code to get a channel to a particular interface at a given address. This is actually how I mainly use WCF.

The “client” approach works well for one-off services, or where it doesn’t need to go through any central tooling. It also makes for very simple demos.

How to: Use the ChannelFactory

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EmitDefaultValue Significance

In .Net, types have default value. Like for reference type default value is null, and for integer type default value is 0.
It is desirable to omit data member from serialized data which is set to it’s default value as a performance advantage.

To omit a member from serialised data, set the EmitDefaultValue property of the attribute to false. Default is true.

public class Employee
    public string employeeName = null;

    public int employeeID = 0;

    [DataMember(EmitDefaultValue = false)]
    public string position = null;

    [DataMember(EmitDefaultValue = false)]
    public int salary = 0;

    [DataMember(EmitDefaultValue = false)]
    public int? bonus = null;

    [DataMember(EmitDefaultValue = false)]
    public int targetSalary = 57800;

XML Representation

   <employeeName xsi:nil="true" />

Data Member Default Values

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Channel Factory

What is Channel Factory
There are three ways to create a WCF client:

  1. Proxy – Using VS or SvcUtil.exe
  2. WCF Channel Factory
  3. REST services, using HttpClient or WebClient

A Channel Factory enables you to create a communication channel to the service without a proxy.
A Channel Factory is implemented by the IChannelFactory Interface.
The Channel Factory class is useful when you want to share a common service contract DLL between the client and the server.

Using the ChannelFactory<T> class is an easier alternative to making calls to the WCF services to the laborious process of generating proxies via the SvcUtil.exe tool every time a service contract changes. Channel Factory is a factory for creating service communication channels at runtime.
ChannelFactory<T> takes a generic parameter of the service type (it must be a service contract interface) to create a channel.

For using channel factory, the following steps are necessary:

  • Create a binding in WCF
  • Create a ChannelFactory class
  • Create a Channel
  • Send-Receive messages over that channel
public interface IService1

    string GetData(int value);


How to Call WCF Service Use Channel Factory

//1. Create a binding  in WCF
BasicHttpBinding myBinding = new BasicHttpBinding();
EndpointAddress myEndpoint = new EndpointAddress("http://localhost:3047/Service1.svc");

//2. Create a ChannelFactory class
ChannelFactory myChannelFactory = new ChannelFactory(myBinding, myEndpoint);
//3. Create a Channel
IService1 instance = myChannelFactory.CreateChannel();

//4. Send-Receive messages over that channel


Difference between proxy and channel factory

PROXY Channel Factory
1 Only require URL where the service resides You must have direct access to the assembly that contains that service contract T for
2 Very Simpler Not easier
3 Easy to Understand channels are complex, network-related
4 There is Visual Studio gives you add the reference When you share a common service contract dll between the client and the server, you’ll be using the ChannelFactory class
5 Proxies have several restrictions like:

  1. Properties need to have gets and sets
  2. Contructors can’t be exposed
  3. Methods other than the service contract cannot be exposed
If you know that your entities will not change much and the client code is less, then a DLL would work better than a proxy
6 By using SVCutil.exe you will create PRoxy When you are using DLL that refers Service contract interface then use the channel factory class

When to use a ChannelFactory i.e. a shared DLL?

A DLL is helpful if the client code is under you control and you’d like to: share more than just the service contract with the client — such as some utility methods associated with entities and make the client & the service code more tightly bound. If you know that your entities will not change much and the client code is less, then a DLL would work better than a proxy. Proxies have several restrictions like:

  1. Properties need to have gets and sets
  2. Contructors can’t be exposed
  3. Methods other than the service contract cannot be exposed

What all to package in the DLL?

You’ll need to package the following:

  1. Entities
  2. Service contract — the interface
  3. RequestMsg classes (if any)
  4. ResponseMsg classes (if any)

So if you are designing a connected system and using WCF for that, then you can use a shared dll instead of a proxy, to avoid code repetition and be more effective in the use of the service entities.


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Transaction in WCF

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Differences Article

Response.Redirect vs Server.transfer


wcf service over web services.

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Wcf Duplex Contract – Subscriber-Publisher usng wsDualHttpBinding

Any real time Application (like score-card etc) that involves update are follow either of two process i.e Pulling or Pushing.

Pulling– client constantly sending request to server for updates. This implementation works fine when there are frequent updates but pulling can be an overhead when updates are very less.

Pushing– Server sends update to client when available. This is the best approach over pulling where we have very less updates from server.

wsDualHttpBinding is used Pushing implementation.
In .net netTcp & namedPipe binding support bi-directional binding but http not, so in WCF they introduced a new binding wsHttpBinding().
It has two channels, one is client to server & other is server to client.
Here we basically have two contracts,
->one contract which is used by service.
->other is used by Client which is a Callback contract.

[ServiceContract(CallbackContract = typeof(IMessageCallback))]
public interface IMessage

interface IMessageCallback
      [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)]
      void OnMessageAdded(string message, DateTime timestamp);

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